fujinosekaic’s 世界史授業備忘録


Big Era Eight第8章

Humans and Ideas



Despite crisis after crisis, Big Era Eight brought new creativity to science, the arts, popular culture, and political and social thought. Communism, fascism, and new liberation movements opposed to European imperialism severely challenged the liberal ideologies of Europe and the United States. Even for many citizens of European democracies, the horrors of war seemed to discredit the liberal ideology that had seemed so full of promise in the late nineteenth century. The historian Oswald Spengler, for example, captured this mood in a work called The Decline of the West, which he first published in 1918. The book, which became a bestseller, argued that all civilizations rise and fall and that World War I marked the beginning of Europe’s decline. To many, liberalism seemed only a veneer that protected exploitative and incompetent governments and allowed social and economic inequities in the world to continue. On the other hand, the US, Britain, and several other European countries mobilized millions of citizens for war without compromising their democratic institutions very much. In fact, these nations broadened the base of popular participation in civic life, notably to include women.

危機に次ぐ危機にもかかわらず、Big Era Eight第8章は科学、芸術、大衆文化、政治的、社会的思想に新たな創造性をもたらしました。欧州帝国主義に反対する共産主義ファシズム、そして新たな解放運動は、ヨーロッパと米国の自由主義イデオロギーに深刻な挑戦を与えた。ヨーロッパの民主主義国民の多くでさえ、戦争の恐怖は、19世紀後半に期待されていたような自由主義イデオロギーを信用できないように思えた。たとえば、歴史家のオズワルド・スペングラー(Oswald Spengler)は、1918年に初めて出版された「The Decline of the West」という作品でこの気分を捉えました。ベストセラーになったこの本は、すべての文明が崩壊し、ヨーロッパの減少の始まり。多くの人にとって、自由主義は、搾取的かつ無能な政府を保護し、世界の社会的および経済的不平等を継続することを許した単なる一面のようであった。一方、米国、英国、および他のいくつかのヨーロッパ諸国は、民主主義機関を妥協することなく、何百万人もの市民を動員した。実際、これらの国は、特に女性を含む市民生活における一般的な参加の基盤を広げた。
Science and art.科学と芸術。 

The challenges to nineteenth-century traditions extended to science and the arts. Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and other scientists developed the theory of relativity and quantum physics in the first three decades of the twentieth century. They both undermined Isaac Newton’s model of a fixed and predictable universe, which scientists of the nineteenth century had taken for granted. In psychology, Sigmund Freud showed the power of irrational forces that lurked in the human sub-conscious. In the fine arts, a mood of anti-rationalism and pessimism brought forth new genres of art. More extensive cross-cultural exchanges of artistic ideas challenged established artistic traditions in most parts of the world. For example, West African wood sculpture inspired the Spanish painter Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), and Mongolian artists incorporated traditional motifs into contemporary art forms such as photography. Entirely new art forms, such as motion pictures, radio drama, and jazz blurred the lines between elite and popular culture.
German radio made by the Telefunken company in 1931.

 19世紀の伝統への挑戦は、科学と芸術にまで及んだ。アルバート・アインシュタイン、ヴェルナー・ハイゼンベルグ、および他の科学者は、20世紀初めの30年間に相対性理論と量子物理学を開発しました。彼らは両方とも、19世紀の科学者が当然としていた固定された予測可能な宇宙のアイザック・ニュートンのモデルを崩壊させた。心理学では、Sigmund Freudは、人間の潜在意識に隠れている非合理的な力の力を示しました。美術において、反合理主義と悲観主義の気分は、新しいジャンルの芸術をもたらした。より広範な異文化間の芸術的アイデアの交流は、世界のほとんどの地域で確立された芸術的伝統に挑戦しました。例えば、西アフリカの木の彫刻は、スペインの画家、パブロ・ピカソ(1881-1973)に影響を与え、モンゴルのアーティストは伝統的なモチーフを写真などの現代の芸術の形態に取り入れました。映画、ラジオドラマ、ジャズなど、まったく新しい芸術形態は、エリートとポピュラーな文化の間の境界線をぼかしました。World Images Kiosk, San Jose State University
©Kathleen Cohen

Mass communication and popular culture. マスコミュニケーションと大衆文化

Perhaps for the first time in history, popular culture, instead of being just the cultural heritage of a particular region, began to reach around the globe. Soviet leaders deliberately used cinema to spread their socialist message to rural villages. In doing so, however, they also ensured that Soviet movie-goers would learn about Hollywood and American values. Radios gave leaders access to vast audiences, and gifted speakers such as Roosevelt, Hitler, and Churchill used the new medium to mobilize whole nations for war. The popular press helped spread new political messages, including fascism and communism, while giving people in democratic societies broader and quicker access to information about the world. Nationalist leaders in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia became increasingly skilled at using newspapers and radio to build mass support. The new media also helped popularize sports such as football and baseball. Refined cultural tastes and values, once the preserve of elite groups, spread increasingly among the working masses.


The world of 1950 was very different from the world of 1900. It was a world disillusioned with nineteenth-century hopes for progress, no longer politically and economically dominated by Western Europe, more populous, more urbanized, and more productive. The world of 1950, however, was just as divided and conflict-ridden, and it bristled with dangerous weapons unimaginable in 1900. In the aftermath of World War II, it was not at all certain that humans could find a way of living with the terrifying technological powers unleashed by the Industrial Revolution. Could peace be preserved better in the second half of the century? Could the machinery of economic growth reduce the global inequalities that had helped fuel the conflicts of 1900-1950? Or was the world doomed to ever more destructive conflicts as power groups fought over the wealth that the technology and science of the modern revolution had generated?